Stellar Evolution. Recommended Articles. Supermassive Black Holes Are Outgrowing February 15, Hubble Yields New Discoveries at the January 11, Shedding Light on Black Holes. August 13, Two Sides of the Same Star. May 30, Ask a Question. Average Stars Become White Dwarfs For average stars like the Sun, the process of ejecting its outer layers continues until the stellar core is exposed. This dead, but still ferociously hot stellar cinder is called a White Dwarf. White dwarfs, which are roughly the size of our Earth despite containing the mass of a star, once puzzled astronomers - why didn't they collapse further?
What force supported the mass of the core? Quantum mechanics provided the explanation.
Pressure from fast moving electrons keeps these stars from collapsing. The more massive the core, the denser the white dwarf that is formed. Thus, the smaller a white dwarf is in diameter, the larger it is in mass! These paradoxical stars are very common - our own Sun will be a white dwarf billions of years from now. White dwarfs are intrinsically very faint because they are so small and, lacking a source of energy production, they fade into oblivion as they gradually cool down. This fate awaits only those stars with a mass up to about 1. Above that mass, electron pressure cannot support the core against further collapse.
Such stars suffer a different fate as described below. White Dwarfs May Become Novae If a white dwarf forms in a binary or multiple star system, it may experience a more eventful demise as a nova. Nova is Latin for "new" - novae were once thought to be new stars. Today, we understand that they are in fact, very old stars - white dwarfs. If a white dwarf is close enough to a companion star, its gravity may drag matter - mostly hydrogen - from the outer layers of that star onto itself, building up its surface layer. When enough hydrogen has accumulated on the surface, a burst of nuclear fusion occurs, causing the white dwarf to brighten substantially and expel the remaining material.
Within a few days, the glow subsides and the cycle starts again. Sometimes, particularly massive white dwarfs those near the 1. Supernovae Leave Behind Neutron Stars or Black Holes Main sequence stars over eight solar masses are destined to die in a titanic explosion called a supernova.
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A supernova is not merely a bigger nova. In a nova, only the star's surface explodes. In a supernova, the star's core collapses and then explodes. In massive stars, a complex series of nuclear reactions leads to the production of iron in the core. Progenitors of white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes. Evolutionary scenarios leading to these stellar residues are studied, in particular the influence of metallicity and the initial rotation of a star on its final stage.
Physics of transport mechanisms in the stars. The effects of rotation, internal waves, magnetic field, atomic diffusion and thermohaline convection inside stars are modeled.
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These mechanisms affect strongly the evolution of stars and systematically promote the match between theory and observations. It is expected to participate in many campaigns of observations in order to obtain new constraints on theoretical models, in particular measures of abundance and magnetic field at the surface of stars of various types. The aim is to extract from the observed vibrations frequencies of the stellar surfaces unparalleled insight of the internal structure. Talk about word salad. Hydrogen GAS will not ignite unless there is an igniter present The Huge Bang Fantasy suffers yet another devastating blow.
Strike This monster galaxy has grown so active ejecting new matter from the huge core, that it has spawned two new supermassive cores that are now diverging from the center while ejecting new gas therefrom along the way. And so, the two clouds surround the divergent cores. This is how galactic clusters eventually form, from a monster in the center.
But that is too logical for the merger maniac dreaming of fantasy! Aug 30, Take sqrt of the ratio 1. Multiply present age 9. But first there must be enough volume of Hydrogen gas and dust to collapse and compress enough to heat the igniter Uranium, for example so that the chain reaction is started. Only then can the chain reaction of fissionable material provide the high enough temps to start the Fusion part going in the Hydrogen gas which requires 1Million C to fuse He atoms in Star-making.
Important thin is that in the coldness of outer space, Hydrogen will not start the process of Fusion without fissionable material to heat it up sufficiently.
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The collapse and compression won't do it, so i. Additionally, I don't think that there actually was a Big Bang. IMO, Space was of a size that was quite the same as it is now, so that when the chain reaction began that ignited the Hydrogen in that Primordial Cloud, the force of the "blast" sent the contents of the cloud outward into the Space. It was almost the very same process as in the later Star-making - before there were any Stars. If it had been due to, as you say, a sudden expansion OF space, the contents of the Primordial Cloud would not have moved, or very little even if there had been a BB.
Your hot, dense Universe did not remain hot very long - out in the coldness of Space. Fissionable material heated by collapse to high temps 3. Hydrogen heated to higher temps by Fission that starts chain reaction that results in Fusion of H.
What , Star Factories in 74 Galaxies Tell Us about Star Formation across the Universe? | ALMA
Hydrogen GAS in the Star-making process can only be ignited by fissionable materiel such as Uranium in a chain reaction. What gives you such an absurd idea? Gravity and compression can most certainly supply enough heat to start fusion. No, you can't. We don't have anything that can detect "space" without anything in it, first off. Secondly, at the very furthest resolution of our instruments there is still matter and energy, in order to detect your empty space we'd have to go further than that.
We're still a long way from reaching any limit of the detectable mass and energy of the universe. It is remarkable that when speaking of events billions of years in the past, the use of verbal tenses here is so very muddled. This galaxy obviously no longer exists as such. We are imagining a steady state of galactic evolution for no apparent reason. Take heed of the words of Heraclitus some three millennia ago on this subject. How has the lawful evolution of star formation changed and why?
Gravity and compression are only able to bring the Hydrogen gas temperature up to a smaller high, which would be high enough to begin the Fission process, as long as there is adequate Fissionable material close or within the Hydrogen gas. That Fissionable material then gets hot enough to ignite the Hydrogen gas to burn at 1 million C. It's not possible. Temperature, Cusco.
Some galaxies are behind ours; some in front. But all are moving outward, not in a circle.
Galactic shape-shifting signals a decrease in star formation across cosmic history
Space always existed large and did not start out like a tiny room that expanded when the walls began moving away from each other. Thanks for agreeing. In fact, it is inevitable. Hence why we detect the neutrinos from the fusion, but no anti-neutrinos from fission. According to the only thing I could find wrt Thermonuclear Fusion was this: "If matter is sufficiently heated hence being plasma , fusion reactions may occur due to collisions with extreme thermal kinetic energies of the particles.
Certainly, there must be pressure and gravity, thus creating density. If Jupiter were capable of fusion, it would be a star. It isn't. Ditto brown dwarves. You really need to take some basic science courses. Perhaps you didn't read the theory of Fission being required to produce high enough temps in Hydrogen to begin the Fusion process of Star-making.
Here is the name of the name of the physicist who came up with the theory, but has yet for it to be recognised as valid by other physicists. It makes perfect sense - logical and reasonable. James Marvin Herndon. James Marvin Herndon Nope, it makes no sense whatsoever.
And the bloke sounds like a crank. Chemtrails, and all that bollocks. Obviously, Jupiter and Saturn haven't become Stars, due to the lack of enough Fissionable materials at their cores to start the Fission process, and thence on to igniting the Hydrogen in their atmospheres to start the Fusion process. It is a step-by-step procedure. It will take some time before Dr. Herndon is vindicated. Yes, I read the Wiki on him.